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LOCs – Une fierté pour qui ? Une fierté pour quoi ?

Lesbiennes of color (LOCs) statement on the organisation of Pride in the French banlieues on 9 June 2019

Statement issued on 6 June 2019

Une fierté pour qui ? Une fierté pour quoi ? De l’opportunisme des alliances et de la visibilité

En réponse à l’appel pour une première « marche des Fiertés en banlieue », le 9 juin 2019, à Saint-Denis

Nous LOCs – Lesbiennes of color avons pour certaines grandi en banlieue, y vivons actuellement, y travaillons, y luttons, ou nous y réfugions, notamment à Saint-Denis où aura lieu la première marche des Fiertés en banlieue. Cette marche proposée par une association dont le but est, entre autres, de donner « une meilleure image de la ville de Saint-Denis » nous interroge.

Pourquoi et comment mener des alliances avec des associations institutionnalisées, telles que l’inter- LGBT ou SOS homophobie, qui n’ont aucune connaissance de nos vies, de nos enjeux, de nos manières de vivre ? Nous ne pouvons accepter que Saint-Denis soit la vitrine d’un pinkwashing à la française qui derrière une pseudo-visibilité laisse intactes les conséquences des politiques racistes, sexistes et capitalistes, qui broient la vie de nos familles, de nos communautés, de nos ami.e.s et camarades, ici et ailleurs. Dans cette façon d’investir Saint-Denis et LA banlieue, nous ne pouvons voir autre chose qu’un désir de s’acheter une bonne conscience et, par la même occasion, l’histoire de nos luttes. Nous sommes actrices de nos espaces et de nos stratégies, nous accordons une grande importance à l’héritage et à la transmission de nos luttes et analyses, c’est pourquoi nous n’oublions pas le coq français fièrement représenté sur la première affiche de la Marche parisienne de 2011, proposé par l’inter-LGBT. Depuis cette proposition aux relents racistes, sexistes, nationalistes voire pétainistes, nous n’avons pas vu l’inter-LGBT s’élever publiquement contre un racisme décomplexé, ni même le combattre activement en son propre sein. Alors pourquoi venir nous donner des leçons d’intersectionnalité à Saint-Denis ?

Nous Lesbiennes of color refusons que cette marche soit un signe de plus envoyé par la Mairie aux gentrifieurs de tous bords faisant de nos quartiers des opportunités pour familles homoparentales blanches et aisées au détriment des lesbiennes précaires qui ne se sentent pas moins en sécurité ici que dans Paris où elles sont contrôlées, agressées, harcelées, mais aussi exotisées, dépolitisées, ignorées ou invisibilisées. La Mairie finance cet événement, mais où se trouve donc l’argent quand il s’agit de nous loger dans des appartements décents ou simplement de ne pas nous y laisser mourir et de nous reloger quand nos immeubles s’effondrent ou brûlent ? Nos vies lesbiennes devraient être fières d’avoir des lits confortables pour accueillir dignement nos compagnes, nos familles et nos ami.e.s réfugié.e.s.

Être visibles le samedi 9 juin, mais avec quels objectifs et quelles conséquences pour nos luttes, nos communautés et nos sœurs qui ne sont pas protégées tout le reste de l’année ? Nos expériences de vie sont celles de lesbiennes issues des migrations post-coloniales, exilées, réfugiées, prises dans des réseaux communautaires et familiaux de solidarités complexes qui ne sauraient être réduites à la seule rhétorique du coming-out et de la visibilité publique. Nous luttons pour accompagner des lesbiennes réfugiées et contre les fascismes qui restreignent nos vies. Nous savons comment et quand être visibles, nous n’avons attendu aucune autorisation pour nous organiser, pour bâtir des espaces safe et construire des solidarités internationales. Depuis des années nous résistons et prouvons nos richesses, nos forces dans les combats que nous menons, dans un réseau alliant de nombreux collectifs dionysiens et au-delà, bien loin du désintérêt total que ces associations ont à l’égard de nos vies en dehors de leurs codes et de leurs espaces. À qui une parade apporte-t-elle de la valeur, in fine ? Toujours aux mêmes. Ceux qui savent la valoriser dans des dossiers de financement dont l’argent ne sert en rien nos intérêts.

Organiser une fête au 6B dans la foulée de cette marche, lieu gentrifié repéré comme n’ayant aucun lien avec le reste de la ville, où la plupart des personnes dites racisé.e.s sont à la sécurité ou à la cuisine et où les personnes LGBTQI racisées dionysiennes ne sont pas accueillies, dans la mesure où les évènements sont pensés la plupart du temps pour des fêtard.e.s et consommateurs de culture qui ne connaissent de Saint-Denis que sa gare, sa basilique et ses quartiers malfamés, nous semble révélateur. La Mairie, qui finance cette marche, et les associations qui l’appuient ne se soucient guère de l’absence totale d’espaces pour les communautés LGBTQI des banlieues ségréguées. Les LGBTQI racisé.e.s, notamment celles et ceux vivant dans ces banlieues, n’échappent pas au racisme, à l’islamophobie, aux violences policières et à la chasse aux migrant.e.s. Nous ne pouvons pas lutter sans prendre en compte ce contexte. Aucun mot non plus dans l’appel diffusé par les organisateurs de cette marche sur le sexisme qui traverse tous les lieux où nous sommes, que les associations de lutte contre l’homophobie devraient pourtant, à force, prendre en compte, ni sur le capitalisme sauvage qui nous oppresse et nous empêche de nous épanouir quand il ne nous empêche pas tout simplement de vivre. Nous regrettons sincèrement ces alliances hasardeuses dont nous savons que les maigres fruits seront volés.

Nous n’y voyons qu’une logique de kit pinkwashing clé en main – comment le voir autrement ? Nos corps lesbiens sont peut-être invisibles et inaudibles pour beaucoup, mais nous continuerons à nous battre en cohérence avec nos vécus et les quartiers dans lesquels nous vivons, car comme le dit bell hooks « les marges sont à la fois un lieu imposé par les structures oppressives mais aussi un espace de radicale possibilité et de résistance ».

Soyons radicales et ne soyons pas dupes : tout ce qui est fait sans nous ne peut être fait pour nous !

Le 6 juin 2019
Groupe LOCs – Lesbiennes of colorespace.locs@gmail.com


Présentation du groupe LOCs

 

Créé en 2009, LOCs (Lesbiennes Of Color) est un groupe non mixte dans une lutte intersectionnelle : racisme, lesbophobie et sexisme. Composé de lesbiennes politiques exilées, réfugiées, issues des migrations post coloniales, qui ont en commun l’histoire des colonisations, la mémoire de l’esclavage et les luttes contre les politiques migratoires gouvernementales et le néolibéralisme, le groupe LOCs est autonome, féministe et solidaire.

 

Avec ce texte, nous voulons apporter un point de vue lesbien politique of color qui nous représente, dans une volonté de bâtir des luttes communes qui ne soient pas sous l’ombre de ce qui nous paraît être une énième forme de tutelle, de main mise ou de récupération. L’autonomie politique de nos luttes est un combat éreintant et nous avons un rapport de force à créer. Nous interrogeons la stratégie mise en place à Saint- Denis mais nous soutenons clairement la visibilité de nos sœurs, frères, camarades et ami.e.s of color LGBTQI. A aucun moment nous ne remettons en question les stratégies individuelles légitimes mais le fait que l’organisation d’une marche des fiertés relève d’une stratégie politique institutionnelle. Contre les attaques subies par les camarades qui organisent la marche, nous serons évidemment toujours solidaires. Loin de nous l’idée de se désolidariser de luttes que nous avons en commun.

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Karim Benbélache – SOS Homophobie hors de nos cités !

SOS Homophobie hors de nos cités !

Intervention de Karim Benbélache lors du premier Decolonial Café de DSN à Paris, le 19 mai 2019.

En 2010 Marine Le Pen déclarait, dans sa parole logiquement raciste ” Dans certains quartiers, j’entends de plus en plus souvent qu’il il ne fait pas bon être femme, ni homosexuel, ni juif, ni même français ou blanc… “, stigmatisant une fois de plus les habitant.e.s des quartiers populaires non blanc.he.s d’être notamment plus sexiste et homophobe qu’ailleurs. Depuis l’idée a germé. En décembre 2018 l’association SOS homophobie annonce sa volonté de s’implanter dans ces mêmes quartiers se justifiant de statistiques floues de la dilcrah de cas d’agressions et donc se faisant le relais de la parole raciste du plus important mouvement de l’extrême droite française.

SOS Homophobie, moi pédé arabe je ne veux pas de vous dans mon quartier populaire racisé, je ne veux pas de votre universalisme blanc, de vos leçons paternalistes et donc colonialistes sur nos droits, sur nos sexualités et nos identités ni que tout cela serve à gonfler vos rapports, vos chiffres et donne de bons points à vos dirigeants blancs pour qu’ils trouvent de bonnes places dans les institutions telle que la DILCRAH soi-disant antiraciste mais qui consent aux politiques racistes islamophobes, aux lois cyniques telle que la loi dite “asile et immigration” qui dramatise la situation des réfugié.e.s des pays postcoloniaux et dans lesquels la France intervient militairement, des politiques de préférence nationale imposées aux étudiants étrangers, du passage de l’état d’urgence dans le droit commun, du refus de mettre fin aux politiques de répression, des contrôles au faciès, de violences policières dans nos cités et de l’impunité de ces mêmes policiers.

Ce ne sont pas vos “token” vos personnes racisées LGBT centrés sur une homophobie soi-disant plus importante “en banlieue pauvre” dont on ne peut prouver une réelle existence mais dont le sport favori semble être de cracher sur les minorités fragilisées auxquelles ils appartiennent. Voici donc que ces tokens là jamais ne dénoncent les politiques racistes, les inégalités, sociales et ne développent aucune analyse pertinente de l’homophobie dont ils font aussi l’objet pas plus que SOS Homphobie apparemment. Au final jamais les LGBTI racisées des quartiers populaires ne seront convaincus de la légitimité de ces vendus et des associations LGBT dites républicaines à faire accepter l’instrumentalisation de nos identités et de nos sexualités à des fins stigmatisantes et donc discriminantes.

Nous queer racisé.e.s sommes aussi des héritiers des luttes décoloniales et antiracistes, de la guerre d’Algérie jusqu’aux collectifs queer antiracistes et décoloniaux autonomes en passant par la marche de l’égalité de 1983, nous savons nous auto-organiser et nous auto-gérer pour lutter ensemble contre les LGBTphobies que nous vivons au quotidien et pour l’essentiel loin de nos cités mais d’abord dans nos emplois : de l’entretien d’embauche aux journées de travail, face à la police, face à la justice, dans les prisons, face au corps médical, face aux institutions scolaires de l’école républicaine à la fac, face aux agents de pôle emploi, face aux assistantes sociales de secteur, face à l’OFPRA et enfin dans les beaux quartiers, terrain et terreau de l’extrême droite et de la manif pour tous, où il ne fait pas bon y être pauvre, noir.e, arabe, pédé, gouine ou trans.

Nous considérerons toujours qu’au coté de la résistance contre les LGBTQIphobies il y a dans nos priorités les luttes antiracistes, féministes, écologiques et sociales. Ne nous libérez pas, on s’en charge.

SOS homophobie hors de nos cités !

 

Karim Benbélache, 41 ans, bisexuel, militant Queer et Antiraciste. Il habite le Kremlin Bicêtre et a passé toute sa vie en banlieue sud de Paris. De formation école de commerce mais discriminé à l’emploi il a passé sa vie active à survivre avec le RSA.

Caster Semenya vs IAAF – Gee Imaan Semmalar

Caster Semenya vs IAAF: Believing that testosterone is a superhuman hormone is a masculinist myth

Gee Imaan Semmalar [with inputs from Dr Sylvia Karpagam and Nadika Nadja]

This post initially appeared in Firstpost on Saturday 4 May 2019

https://www.firstpost.com/sports/caster-semenya-vs-iaaf-believing-that-testosterone-is-a-superhuman-hormone-is-a-masculinist-myth-6570481.html

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On May 1st, 2019 the Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) new rules that make it mandatory for women athletes whose bodies produce high levels of testosterone to lower their  levels to less than 5 nmol/L for 6 months before competing in track events from 400m up to the mile. While this is a huge setback for South African athlete, Caster Semenya who appealed against the IAAF rules last year, this also sets back our discourse on sex/gender by at least a decade.

Since the 1936 Olympics, high performing athletes like Stella Walsh of Poland and Helen Stephens of the United States who  competed in the female category, have been questioned about being “male imposters” and subjected to physical examinations.German athlete Dora Ratjen, is often portrayed as part of a Nazi scheme to fraudulently pass off a man as a woman at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. However, police and medical records of the time show, that Dora was an intersex person, raised as female but who identified as male since the age of 10, never revealing it to anyone. In fact, some narratives talk about Dora’s relief at being found out and his social transition to Heinrich Ratjen (in today’s nomenclature, he would have possibly identified as a trans man with intersex variations or an intersex trans man).

Subsequently, suspicions among countries fuelled by the Cold War and anxieties about the unmanageability of gender categories prompted international sports administrators by mid-1940s,to seek medical “femininity certificates” to verify the sex of  athletes competing in female categories. By the 1960’s it was decided that individual nations could not be trusted to certify their own athletes and a mandatory genital check was introduced by international sporting authorities. This was replaced by a chromosomal test in the late 60’s. If history should have taught us a lesson, it is that gender testing is never conclusive due to the fact that the categories of gender difference, like racial differences, were made on flimsy, unscientific grounds with too much diversity within a category to really be separable. However, here we are in 2019, with the IAAF asking athletes competing in the female category to fit into a predetermined hormonal range, or chemically alter themselves till they conform to the range. This is based on yet-to-be proven grounds that higher levels of testosterone provides significant advantage in athletics. In an ironic moment I wished that the IAAF fantasy of testosterone boosting performance was true. As a trans man who competed in track events successfully when my testosterone was in the “female range” and who huffs and puffs up flights of stairs now that my testosterone is in the “male range”, I know only too well how far from reality this simplistic fantasy is. Testosterone as a superhuman power generating hormone is just a masculinist myth.

If we were to expand on the point about advantages, don’t athletes from the Global North with better training facilities, access to sports physicians, healthcare, equipment  and nutrition have an unfair advantage over the athletes from the Global South who don’t have the same resources? Furthermore, Sylvia Karpagam, public health doctor and nutrition specialist says, “When making population level measurements, the blood range only gives an idea of what applies to a majority. This doesn’t automatically mean that those who lie outside this range are “abnormal”. They can only be called as outliers.The acceptable ranges also change according to developments in medical science. For example, the cut-off for diabetes is currently being revised. This means that people who were being diagnosed and treated as diabetic before, are  now within the ‘normal’ range and don’t even need medications.The role of nutrition should also not be underestimated. In India, it is a fact that those who eat beef are likely to have stronger muscle mass.Considering India’s caste prejudices, it won’t be long before there is a call to exclude beef eaters from sports for having ‘undue advantage”.

In the Indian context, dalit athlete from Tamil Nadu, Shanthi Soundarajan faced humiliating gender tests and disqualification after finishing second in the 800 meters at the 2006 Asian Games in Doha. While South Africa has stood staunchly by Caster Semenya’s ten year long struggle, the Indian Athletics Federation leaked Shanthi’s reports to the media resulting in a brutal campaign against her which ended in a suicide attempt by the athlete. In a cruel twist of logic, Shanti who was not allowed to compete as a woman, was paid lower wages at the brick kiln she later worked at (due to women being paid less than men). More recently, Shanthi Soundarajan has filed a Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) case  against her colleagues at the Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu, where she works as a coach.In 2014,  Dutee Chand from Orissa won the gold in both the 200-meter sprint and the 4-by-400-meter relay at the Asian Junior Athletics Championships in Taipei, Taiwan. Following “suspicions” over her gender, the Athletics Federation of India subjected her to a non consensual ultrasound along with routine blood and urine tests at a clinic in Delhi. Based on the reports submitted to the IAF, she underwent invasive gynaecological tests, chromosomal analysis and MRIs, the results of which were leaked to the media. In 2015, Dutee Chand appealed to the Court of Arbitration for Sport against her disqualification which led to a three-judge panel concluding that the role of natural testosterone in athleticism remains unknown. They sought scientific evidence from IAAF and sus­pended the hormone regulation policy until July 2017.

The evidence the IAAF subsequently published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine was criticised for containing a number of errors. In fact, the World Medical Association (WMA) — representing physicians from 114 national member associations — has strongly rejected the IAAF policy on testosterone regulation. WMA President Dr. Leonid Eidelman said in a statement published on their website, ‘We have strong reservations about the ethical validity of these regulations. They are based on weak evidence from a single study, which is currently being widely debated by the scientific community. They are also contrary to a number of key WMA ethical statements and declarations, and as such we are calling for their immediate withdrawal’. Apart from there not being any conclusive scientific evidence on testosterone providing significant advantage in sports, it is pertinent to look at the differences in how synthetic testosterone intake (doping) and natural testosterone acts on the body. The ability of the body to process natural testosterone depends on receptor function and this has not been taken into consideration in the recent public debates around hyperandrogenism.

There have been compelling arguments made by critics of this hormonal regulation policy.  The biological differences like disproportionately vast wingspan and double-jointed ankles that gave Michael Phelps significant advantage as a swimmer, was in contrast, celebrated rather than scrutinised and condemned. Dr Silvia Camporesi, bioethicist and senior lecturer in the Department of Global Health & Social Medicine at King’s College, London, has pointed out that differences in Hemoglobin receptors can cause higher red blood cells and if the RBC count is 50% more than others, it is like being naturally doped, significantly improving performance. Finnish cross-country skier Eero Mäntyranta, who was born with a genetic mutation that increased his haemoglobin level to about 50% enjoyed the privileges of his biological difference without censure. Why then, are the bodies of women athletes, particularly black women athletes and women athletes from the global south, under constant scrutiny, subjected to invasive tests and public trials?

The racist gender bias in sports is evident when we look at the ways in which the bodies of top black women athletes like Serena Williams have been subjected to inappropriate scrutiny and sexualization. Caster Semenya is the youngest in a long line of black women who have faced similar experiences. The mandatory rule of chemically altering her testosterone level is violative of her bodily integrity and human rights. Caster Semenya, an openly queer black woman has been nonchalantly advised to suppress her natural testosterone using contraceptives. This is highly insensitive apart from being medically unnecessary and violative. Caster Semenya may have intersex variations, but she identifies as a woman. It is her inalienable right to contest in sports without having to subject herself to arbitrarily fixed biological determinants of gender. Making a third sporting event or enforcing conformity to the gender binary in biologically deterministic ways will not help the sporting world out of this conundrum. Gender diversity exists in the human world and is reflected in the field of sports. Unfortunately, a lot of people are unaware of this fact.

In 2014, Caster Semenya was awarded the Order of Ikhamanga, a recognition of significant achievement, by the President of South Africa, Jacob Zuma.The proclamation said she was “one of the most well-loved daughters of the soil who won hearts of many by making running look like poetry in motion.” I wish we could say that we honoured and stood with our Indian women athletes the same way.

 

 

DECOLONIAL CAFÉ PARIS 19th May 2019

Decolonial Café

Peripheral Perspectives at the Centre

Paris 19thMay 2019

This is the first café encounter of the Decolonizing Sexualities Network (DSN). There will be a series of café events in various metropolitan (de-)colonial centres in Europe (Paris, London, Barcelona).

The aim is to bring together QTPOC artists, activists and academics in conversation with each other through a series of readings, dialogues, poetry recitation, speeches, and performances. The plurality of formats reiterate DSN’s commitment to produce and archive multiple forms of knowledges.

Poster Dec Café

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/events/1990758501232114/ 

Archives: https://www.kent.ac.uk/law/dsn/index.html

 

Decolonising Knowledge Around Gender and Sexuality – 30.11.2018 London

Decolonising Knowledge Around Gender and Sexuality

A day-long conference organised by the Centre for Transnational Development and Collaboration (CTDC) (http://ctdc.org) and Kohl: A Journal for Gender and Body Research (http://kohljournal.press/#). The conference was held on 30th November 2018 at Birkbeck College, University of London.

Audio recording of two sessions:

  1. Opening Session: Disturbing Binaries around Knowledge Production.

Participants: Dr Nour Abu-Assab, Dr Nof Nasser-Eddin, Roula Seghaier and Ghiwa      Sayegh.

 

2. Closing Session: What Does it Mean to Decolonise?

Participants: Dr Nour Abu-Assab, Dr Nof Nasser-Eddin, Roula Seghaier and Ghiwa      Sayegh.

 

Contacts:

Centre for Transnational Development and Collaboration (CTDC) (http://ctdc.org)

Kohl: A Journal for Gender and Body Research (http://kohljournal.press/#).

Book description – Lesbiennes de l’immigration (2018)

Lesbiennes de l’immigration. Construction de soi et relations familiales

Editions du Croquant, 2018

Salima Amari

The condition of North African origin women is rarely evoked outside of heterosexuality. Addressing the issue of Maghrebi origin lesbians allows us to engage with a category in all its diversity, often reduced to a classic scheme of domination and submission to men and heterosexuality. How do social relations of gender, race, and class influence the social construction of lesbianism? The author goes beyond analyses based on binary confrontations and proposes a reflection based on the complexity of gendered social relations, particularly in the context of North African immigration. Documenting the aforementioned complexity through several interview excerpts, she makes space for the women, far from fantasy.

Based on a life story survey of twenty-one lesbians and a field observation (supported by thirty-one informal interviews), this book aims to report on the social construction of lesbianism in the context of intersectionality of social relations of gender, class, race, and sexuality. Its main purpose is the analysis of “lesbian career” and family relationships through the study of cross-paths as women of North African descent and as lesbians. What is the process by which these women construct lesbian pathways in a migratory and post-migration context? The main research hypothesis is based on the idea that these lesbians act on two fronts: that of self-construction on the one hand, and the management of their family relationships, which they often try to preserve somewhere else. This research is the first of its kind engaging with the issue of lesbianism in Maghrebi immigration in France. It proposes an enabling analysis to update the mechanisms of oppression and resistance strategies of women who undergo multiple dominations.

The results of the research allow us to assert that in the face of socio-familial heteronormative constraints, many North African lesbians and of Maghrebi descent prefer filial and family loyalties while continuing to live their lesbian affective and sexual lives. They thus push back the family expectations of heterosexual marriage and maternity by making themselves available to the various domestic and administrative tasks of their parents. By studying in detail the different educational and academic backgrounds of the respondents, this work reveals links between self-construction as lesbians and certain choices of school and university orientation. Indeed, the choice of sectors and places of study is indicative of the desire of the majority of these lesbians to permanently associate both geographical distance and relational proximity. Thus, by choosing to study the Arabic language and Islamic studies in places far from their parents, they make the choice of individual autonomy while showing an interest in parental culture. Access to higher socio-professional positions than parents also allows for financial and residential autonomy that makes lesbian relationships possible.

The analysis of the relations of the respondents in terms of gender, that is to say as girls / women within their families, allows to better understand their social and family behavior in terms of sexuality, that is to say as lesbians. Thus, from the awareness of their homosexual orientation to the various future projections of lesbian conjugality and parenthood, lesbian careers are marked by a number of obstacles. The constraint to heterosexuality is accentuated by religious and family pressures related to the social expectations of heterosexual marriage and maternity. In these conditions, the leeway of lesbians depends on several criteria: age, social class, socio-family environment, relationship to religion and the degree of financial and residential autonomy. Some lesbians therefore decide to move away from the parental home for professional reasons or to pursue their higher studies taking advantage of this geographical distance to live an affective and sexual lesbian life. Others find themselves faced with the obligation to first go through the heterosexual marriage (real or convenience with a Maghrebi gay man) and sometimes maternity to meet family expectations before divorce and start  a “second life” as lesbian with more serenity.

Finally, the analysis of the majority of life stories shows “parallel lives” between self-building as lesbians and the management of family relationships – especially parenting. Thus, apart from a few exceptions of outing or coming-out to family that resulted in family breakdowns, all lesbians encountered during this survey chose not to display their lesbianism in certain areas (close and extended family, school, neighborhood and the medias). They continue to be closely attached to their parents. This does not preclude alternative forms of coming out as the everyday expressions of their homosexuality or the use of “strategic lies” as presenting the lesbian partner as their roommate. These lesbian careers are built either on family breakdowns or unstable equilibrium between lesbian lives on the one hand and family relationships on the other.

Lesbiennes de l’immigration offers an analysis of diverse aspects such as the process of constructing lesbian pathways with experiences of coming-out, couple life and motherhood, and the relationships that lesbians have with their families and religion. Beyond the norms of “sexual modernity” and heterosexual norms, we can ask, are lesbian immigrants re-inventing new ways of being post-migrant lesbians?

Salima Amari holds a doctorate in sociology from Paris 8 University. She is a member of the Center for Sociological and Political Research in Paris (CRESPPA-GTM) and Assistant Professor at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

Available in French from the following link / Ouvrage disponible sur le site de l’éditeur (frais de port offerts), cliquer ici :

http://www.editions-croquant.org/les-collections/product/476-lesbiennes-de-l-immigration